Wednesday, September 14, 2011

Days of Summer

Gentle Readers,

Summer is winding down, and though I have enjoyed every moment of canning and preserving like a mad human, I must admit to being relieved that it's coming to an end. As my first full canning season, and my first big summer garden, I have had my hands full of projects these past months. Not to mention becoming employed at the end of May, getting married in California in June, and starting a new job this month. I feel that all this has trampled my writing efforts into the ground recently - but fear not! I give you the summer recap.

Canning Projects Completed, Summer 2011 (Thus Far) 
Strawberry jam, 20 half pint jars
Radish relish, 6 half pints
Radish top kimchi, 1 quart
Sauerkraut, 1 quart
Cucumber and eggplant pickles, 3 quarts
Strawberry vanilla jam, 6 half pints
Zucchini, shredded and diced, 4 quarts and 4 pints
Blueberries, 6 pints
Blueberry syrup, 4 pints
Dilly beans, 9 pints
Ginger pears, 7 pints
Tomato sauce, 8 quarts and 4 pints
Peach vanilla jam, 9 half pints
Peach slices, 4 quarts
Peach butter, 5 half pints
Slow roasted tomatoes, 2 quarts (frozen)
Tomato conserva, 3 half pints (not canned, preserved under olive oil)
Roasted tomato salsa, 12 pints
Roasted tomatillo salsa, 4 half pints
Tomato jam, 6 half pints
Corn, 12 pints
Tomato soup, 11 quarts
Tomato basil sauce, 4 quarts (basil from the garden!)

Summer 2011 Preservation Failures 

Tomato jam - not through any fault of the recipe, which I am sure is delicious when not left in a slow cooker for more than 24 hours and burnt to an oozing charcoal goo - not a good smell to wake up to. A few days after the Tomato Jam Catastrophe of Twenty-Eleven, I summoned the courage to give it another go, and succeeded at producing six half-pints of this ketchup replacement.

Roasted tomatillo salsa - my first "jar breaks in the canner" experience was not a fun one. I spent $3 a pint for extremely tiny tomatillos from the farmers market, and a good portion of them turned out to be worm eaten under their papery skins. From the rest, I managed to make five half-pints worth of roasted salsa verde. Upon placement in the canner, one of the jars immediately exploded in a swirl of broken glass. Fishing glass out of boiling water turns out not to be as easy as you would think - shocking. The ultimate disappointment is that the end product was a very overly limey, extremely expensive salsa.

Summer 2011 Kick-Assing-est Preserves 

Peach butter - made using the guidelines from Food in Jars. Absolutely amazing. I used half honey and half sugar, for a total of about two cups to (probably about) 10 lbs of peaches, simmered with a split vanilla bean and some cinnamon and cardamom added in at the end of the slow cooker magic. I also helped the smoothness along with my immersion blender. Conclusion? Everything is better with vanilla beans.

Radish relish - Idon't even like relish! Or radishes! However, this recipe from Well Preserved makes one hell of a classy relish. That's just how they roll in Canada. I couldn't find black radishes, so I used the terribly cute Easter Egg variety. I'm currently growing radishes for the express purpose of making more of this relish.

Perhaps my biggest time commitment has been attempting to preserve 100 lbs of tomatoes - the most of anything I have ever attempted to preserve, ever. Now that I've finished Operation Eat Local Tomatoes All Winter - I can move on to other, less urgent projects, like racking my latest cider onto some spices for a delicious spiced winter beverage.

The beginning of the Great Tomato Madness, and peach jam and butter.

Dilly beans and ginger pears.

Strawberry jam party! Nothing like jamming with friends.

Luminous peach vanilla jam.

Fall is definitely on its way, and thoughts of winter are creeping into my consciousness after months of reveling in the glories of bare feet and short sleeves. The apples are making their way towards ripeness, and in the meantime, I am taking a little break from preserving. 

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Drink of The Gods!

Mead. Zeus drank it. Hoards of rampaging Vikings drank it. Now you, too, can revel in the glory of mead. Mead is honey wine, the first known fermented beverage. Ever. It has historically been a very common way to booze it up - and by common, I mean pretty much every culture has made and enjoyed some type of mead. Sadly, with the industrialization of alcohol production, it's pretty hard to find commercially made mead. Lucky for you, you can make your own at home. I recommend you try making cider or wine with fruit before you make mead, because it can be a tricky one.

This recipe is for cyser, or apple mead. I like apples in my booze. You could use a different kind of juice to suit your taste. 

What You Need:
All the equipment listed in my basic cider post.
An additional fermentation vessel. I use the glass jugs that the juice comes in with
An additional air lock and stopper. 
Honey, 10 cups
Apple juice (with no preservatives), 2.5 gallons
Water, 5 quarts
Black tea, 5 cups
1 package of champagne yeast
5 teaspoons acid blend (available at your FLHBS)
5 teaspoons yeast nutrient (also available at your FLHBS)

Heat the water and stir in the honey,  along with the acid blend, yeast nutrient, and tea. I forgot the tea until the last minute and added it afterward, and it turned out ok - so there is room for error here. Stir the honey until it's dissolved, and simmer for five minutes. Turn the heat off and let it cool down to body temperature, then add the honey mixture to the juice and yeast in the primary fermentation vessel. Snap on the lid and airlock and let the yeast do the work.

After two or three weeks, transfer the mead to the secondary carboy. After that, it's a matter of months, really. I left my mead in secondary for about three months.

Clearing ... clearing ... clearing ...

Wait until there are no bubbles coming out of the airlock for at least five minutes at a time before bottling. Wait to drink until six months - at least! - after bottling. Mead really improves with age, so have patience. I want to know what my first mead will taste like in ten years! Of course I had a taste during bottling (that's just standard operating procedure), and I will admit it tasted plenty drinkable to me already. I'm trying not to think about it.

Nothing says "home" like a cupboard full of mead.

For a much more thorough explanation of the mead making process, the history of mead, and the effects of different types of honey on mead, visit Mead Made Complicated. Wiki also has a fairly decent page on mead.

If you are lucky enough to live near Boulder, Colorado, please do pay Redstone Meadery a visit. They are an amazing local meadery and I love them so much I want to marry them. Don't tell my spouse.

Friday, July 8, 2011

Variations on a Blueb

Summer is here, and that means canning season is in full swing. This time last summer I acquired my water bath canner and moved to Seattle. I was inspired to preserve food by my six month long journey around the country, staying at intentional communities and helping them grow their gardens and preserve what they produced. I learned how to can by making blackberry jam from foraging the blackberries that grow wild all over the city. The first jam session took me all day, but it was delicious, and it was mostly free, and I was hooked.

Sadly, there are no blackberries free for the foraging in Colorado, but blueberries are currently abundant and since they were on sale at my local market, I decided some blueberry preservation was in order. In the middle of the long Colorado winter, when snow covers the garden and my windows are frosted over, I will crack open a jar of homemade blueberry syrup and stave off the oppressive cold with a stack of blueberry pancakes and a hot cup of tea. It sounds so good, I almost can't wait until winter. Hah! Just kidding.

Blueb Syrup 
7 cups blueberries
1 cup sugar, I used organic evaporated cane juice.
2 tablespoons lemon juice
2 cups blueberry juice (Yeah, it's ridiculously expensive, so I used a cheaper 100% juice blueberry-cranberry blend.)
1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Wash and sort the blueberries, making sure to remove any stems or gross squashy berries. Reserve a cup of berries, and puree the rest in a food processor, or mash with a potato masher. Strain puree in a cheesecloth over a colander over the pot you will use to cook the syrup. I like to use my hands to help smoosh the juice out of the cheesecloth.

If you have a juicer, you can skip the pureeing and squishing, and just juice the bluebs, but you will miss out on half the fun and having bits of blueberry in your syrup. I'm not too picky about making sure it's clear, cause I like the bits of fruit - they're tasty. After you have most of the juice out, heat it to boiling with the lemon juice and blueberry juice. Add the sugar and vanilla, stirring to dissolve the sugar, then add the reserved whole blueberries. Bring it back to a boil, and ladle into sterilized pint jars, leaving 1/2 inch of space at the top. Wipe the rims with a clean damp cloth, cap with sterilized, heated lids, and process in a water bath canner for 15 minutes, or 20 minutes if you live at a high altitude like me.

Whole Blueberries (Recipe adapted from
7 cups blueberries, washed and sorted
2 cups sugar
4 cups water
2 cups blueberry-cranberry juice
Lemon juice

To make a syrup, bring the water and juice to a boil. Add the sugar, stir to dissolve, and bring back to a boil. Ladle your blueberries into sterilized pint jars and add one tablespoon of lemon juice to every pint. Ladle hot syrup over the berries, leaving 1/2 inch of space at the top. Wipe the rims with a clean damp cloth, cap with sterilized, heated lids, and process in a water bath canner for 15 minutes, or 20 minutes if you live at a high altitude like me.

Beautiful bluebs.

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Harder Cider

“Wow, that is a lot of juice.” An older lady in the store said, ogling my cart. “I'm making cider.” I explained. “How do you do that?” she asked, a perplexed and slightly suspicious look on her face. “Well, basically you just add yeast and possibly sugar and let it ferment for a few weeks and then bottle it!” I exclaimed, happy to be sharing home brewing info with hapless passers by. “Huh.” Obviously she was not convinced. I guess I'm not a very effective evangelist.

And the cider makers.
 So far every cider I've made has been something of an experiment. I'm not big on recipes, and though I have a basic guide to homebrewing, I tend to use a mishmash of advice given to me in person by experienced brewers, knowledge I've gleaned from forums and books I've read on the subject. This cider is a good example of that. I didn't exactly just make it up, but I didn't follow a recipe from a book, either. I'd call this a very basic hard cider, though not quite as basic as my previous super simple cider recipe.

Harder Cider

What you need:
Juice, added Vitamin C is ok, added preservatives are not. Check the label. I used five gallons of unfiltered 100% apple juice.
Yeast, preferably wine or champagne.
Sugar, I used four pounds of turbinado.
Can of apple juice concentrate
Acid blend, available from your FLHBS.
Fermentation vessel, either a plastic bucket with a lid or a large glass jar (carboy) with a stopper.
Air lock
Bottles, 16oz or 750 ml
Siphon hose
Campden tablets, bleach water, or vinegar.
Racking cane, optional

This cider requires a little more work than the previous one, but you can follow all the instructions for making a basic cider from my previous post with a couple added steps. I'm going to assume that you have read the basic instructions for the sake of this post.

After you have sanitized your equipment, pour a gallon of juice into a large pot and heat on medium. Add the sugar and stir until it's dissolved. Add the can of juice concentrate and heat until it's also dissolved. Depending on the size of your pot, you may have to do this in two rounds to dissolve all the sugar. Just make sure your juice/sugar/concentrate mixture is cooled down to body temperature before you add it to the rest of the juice. While it's cooling, add the rest of the juice and five teaspoons of acid blend (or one teaspoon for every gallon of juice) to the fermentation vessel and stir. Add the cooled sugar mixture and the yeast, stir again, and cap.

Sugary, sugary juice.
 I'm going to assume, though my batch isn't finished yet, that this will take more than a week or two to finish fermenting. Let it go until the airlock stops bubbling, or until it bubbles less than once every five minutes. When it doubt, wait before bottling.
According to my handy dandy hydrometer, this concoction has a potential alcohol content of about 11%. By comparison, no sugar added cider (depending on the sugar content of your juice) has an alcohol content of about 6%. The added alcohol has a benefit beyond the obvious, as it allows you to store your cider for much longer without worry that it will go bad. I recommend allowing this cider to age for at least a month or two after bottling. If you try it after a couple months, and you are not impressed, let it sit for a while longer. Try it again at six months. Save a few bottles for a year or two down the road, because it will only get more awesome.

This tart cherry cider  is getting even awesomer in my cupboards RIGHT NOW.

The cost of this cider for me was about $45. The juice was $6 a gallon, four pounds of turbinado sugar was $7, a can of apple juice concentrate was $3.75 and the packet of yeast was $2.50. I already had the acid blend and all the equipment so if you need to acquire those the start up cost would have to be factored in.Compared to commercially produced cider, super cheap! As an added bonus, super delicious! And if you can find a commercial cider with an 11% alcohol content ... let me know.

Monday, May 9, 2011

Compost Failure

I am not a compost expert. I have actually failed at composting. Here's how. When I lived in Seattle, my (awesome) landlords allowed me to garden and compost in the yard, and even surprised me by dropping off a black compost barrel for me to use. It was basically a huge plastic barrel with an open bottom, slits on the side, and a twist off top. I used it, but I moved away before the compost could mature and be used. Sad times.

When I moved to Boulder, I had the amazing idea that I would compost in a big plastic storage bin. Except I didn't drill holes in it to allow for air flow. I kept the lid on. And I didn't add enough brown material. The result was a compost failure of epic-ly smelly proportions. I had started it with the intent of converting it to a worm bin, but I never did, and I couldn't bear to throw my scraps out, so the stench just kept building, until the compost disaster encompassed two bins.

I knew I needed to face my failure. I needed to be brave. I needed a solution. I still wanted worms, but I still didn't feel up to building a worm bin. So I did something radical. I took a step back, and thought of the simplest possible solution.

I dumped my compost. I started with a big pile of leaves, collected from my yard, and dumped the compost on the leaves. I nearly fainted from the smell, but I persevered and interspersed the gooey, rotten compost with layers of leaves, paper, and small wood chips, and covered the whole thing with more leaves. I took a step back, and walked away. I WALKED. AWAY.

Within two days, the pile had reduced in size drastically. I assume it was all that pent up moisture draining into the ground. In another few days the pile was a mere ghost of its former self, and the smell, although not entirely gone, no longer made me want to vomit. Soon, my compost was heating up and decomposing like compost gone wild. SUCCESS. 

Now the compost pile is much loved by birds, squirrels, and bugs. Especially squirrels. They like to remove my layers of leaves that I use to cover food scraps to get to the tasty goodness buried within. And by remove, I mean burrow through and toss to the four winds. I like to bury new food scraps in the pile by digging a little hole to help get them in the middle of all the hot decomposing action. 

I share this story of my miserable, lazy, personal failing with you, to let you know that, even if you fail at a project, you probably haven't ruined it forever. Even if you have, you can try again, and you will probably avoid making the same mistakes. Trying to claim responsibility for your daily needs with something like composting waste is worth doing, even twice. And, if I ever get a worm bin, I'll let you know.

Squirrel noms!

Friday, May 6, 2011

Starting Seeds (On The Cheap)

Growing your own food, no matter how little you can manage, is perhaps one of the most empowering DIY projects you can take on. Since I moved to Boulder from Seattle, I've been working on starting a garden from scratch and adapting to the climate in Colorado. Much to my dismay, I wasn't around long enough to harvest very much of my garden in Seattle, except a bit of chard. I am hoping that this time I won't have to move, and the work pays off. I'm dreaming of the first homegrown tomato, which will assuredly never make it out of the garden without being eaten. 

There are many reasons why I aim to grow at least some of my own food, and honestly the primary reason is not to save money. It's about the food, the quality and freshness, the satisfaction of home canned produce all winter long, and not having to throw away packaging, or feel guilty about buying a watermelon grown in an entirely different continent. However, in my pursuit of all these (hopefully) noble goals, I aim to not spend more than I have to. Gardening can get expensive if you let it. I had dreams of a container garden that I could just pick up and take with me when I move, but I had to let it go, because containers are just too expensive. I don't want to turn into this guy.

Sadly, I realized that this $6 container will only give me one or two artichokes.
Starting seeds may be the most expensive part of gardening, besides the cost of water. I've read that it's cheaper than buying seedlings, but honestly I think that depends on how you do it. You could buy seed trays, and then larger pots to transfer the seedlings to later, a grow light, or warming pad, and the electricity to run them, seed starting mix, root powder, not to mention potting soil, compost, fertilizer, and, oh yeah, seeds.

Little onions, and some green garlic.

I opt for recycled food containers instead of seed trays and pots. I am lucky to have a nook in the living room with windows on three sides that is perfect for starting seeds. I will admit, I would love to have a greenhouse. I think that is one cost that is totally justified. However, greenhouses are out of reach for me and most folks who live in apartments or generally don't own a house. 

I did buy potting soil, compost, and fertilizer. I started some seeds in seed starting mix, and some in a high quality but less expensive potting soil, and had the same success rate with both. I'd say opt for good potting soil. I have a compost pile of my own decomposing away for future gardening purposes, but it's unfortunately only a few months old and thus not ready for current use. 

Our friendly squirrel neighbor also makes use of our compost.
Most of my “pots” are recycled yogurt tubs and soymilk boxes. Make sure to punch holes for drainage in the bottom of your containers. I also save clear plastic milk jugs for use as mini-greenhouses. So far, I've had a 100% success rate starting seeds with no artificial light or heat except the radiant heat of my apartment, which is generally a little under 60F. I was worried that my tomatoes wouldn't germinate, so I covered them in plastic wrap and they sprouted a couple days later. 

It's not as cute as rows of ceramic pots, but this motley bunch is just as functional.

I bought my seeds from companies that sell heirloom and organic seeds, which means I can save seed from any food I harvest, and use it to plant the next year without having to buy more seeds. Hybrid and GMO seeds do not have this ability. I recommend buying varieties that have been adapted for your climate, or one very similar to yours – another great quality of heirlooms, as many types have been around for hundreds of years. I haven't found them to be significantly more expensive than any other old seed packets, and when you calculate in the benefit of being able to replant from next season's seeds, they are downright cheap. Also, heirloom varieties are just way more awesome than the usual hybrid varieties. Want purple beans, green cauliflower, golden beets, rainbow chard, or black tomatoes? I know I do.

For an interesting look at the cost benefit analysis of a home garden, check out this post by Kitchen Gardeners International.

Monday, May 2, 2011


Confession time. It's hard for me to admit, but ... I ... don't like yogurt. I mean, I use it for a lot of things: in place of sour cream, on spicy food. Generally as a condiment I like yogurt just fine. Frozen yogurt is amazing. But eating a bowl of yogurt by itself? I can't do it. Only total desperation and a lack of food in the house can drive me to such an extreme and masochistic act.

Om nom nom.

My partner, however, loves yogurt. He can eat a tub or two a week, easy. Before I learned to make yogurt we were spending about 3.50 a quart for maple flavored yogurt - two of those a week can add up pretty fast in the grocery budget. Homemade yogurt costs the same as milk, though to start off with you need either a bit of yogurt or a yogurt culture. If you know someone who makes homemade yogurt already I bet you could beg or barter a bit off them for free. I started with a couple spoon fulls of store bought. After you have home made yogurt on hand, you can use that as a started for your next batch. If you can keep up this endless cycle, you will never have to buy yogurt again! As for me, I occasionally forget to reserve some for the next round and end up buying a little cup of yogurt. 

Making yogurt is ridiculously simple. There are a couple tools that make it easier but are not essential, like a thermometer and a heating pad. I don't have a heating pad, so I use the oven with the light on for incubation.

What you need:
Milk - I use whole.
A few spoon fulls of plain yogurt
Quart size mason jar(s)
A large pot, big enough to hold however many jars you are making.
A thermometer (optional)
A jar lifter (optional) - a common canning tool, but you can use a potholder.

A half gallon of milk will make two quarts of yogurt, but of course you can make just one quart, or four, or however many you can fit in your pot. Now is a good time to take your "starter" yogurt out of the fridge.

Fill the jars with milk, put them in the pot, and fill the pot with hot water. Heat on medium until the thermometer in the milk, not the water, reads 180, or, if you are not using a thermometer, until the milk starts gently boiling. The double boiler technique keeps the milk from actually boiling, but allows it to scald which both kills bacteria and denatures some proteins to make the yogurt smooth. If the milk forms a skin, skim it off with a spoon.

 Remove the jars from the water once 180F is reached. Allow the milk to cool back down to 110F - I usually accomplish this by removing the jars from the pot, refilling it with ice water, and putting the jars back in until they drop to110F. If you are not using a thermometer, 110F is the temperature at which you can comfortably dip your finger in for ten seconds, about the same as hot bathwater. Add a spoon full of yogurt to each quart, stir, and cap.

Now you need to make sure your yogurt stays at a constant temperature of 110F, for 7 - 12 hours. You can use a heating pad, or the oven with the light on. I preheat the oven for a minute until the oven thermometer reads 110, and leave the yogurt overnight with the light on. Once I accidentally left it in the oven for a whole day and a half, and I was sure I had ruined it, but the yogurt was super thick and creamy, and still good! Cheese may be milk's leap toward immortality, but yogurt is much easier to make and extends the life of milk by weeks. Not bad. After your yogurt is done incubating, refrigerate it to cool it down. It will continue to thicken in the fridge.

 Microbiotic alchemy!

 Of course, it's not even worth mentioning that store bought yogurt usually contains all sorts of things that aren't milk, right? In case you need more incentive, here's the breakdown.

1 gallon organic milk, not on sale - $5.00
Home made yogurt - $1.25 a quart
1 quart of store bought yogurt, not on sale - $3.50

Thanks, Lactobacillus!
 P.S. The health benefits of yogurt are not to be scoffed at. However I do not recommend trying to get your probiotics from yogurt flavored Pepsi. 

Friday, April 29, 2011


Sauerkraut and kim chi are both essentially lacto-fermented cabbage. In the case of kim chi, other vegetables, spices, and sometimes even shrimp are added to the cabbage. Having made both kim chi and sauerkraut, I can assure you that they are both super easy to make! If you have never had lacto-fermented vegetables before, they have a pleasantly sour, salty flavor, retain their crunchy texture and - this is the best part - keep forever, or at least a year or so in the fridge.

Or just ferment it!
 Living in the age of refrigeration makes us think that leaving food out for even a couple hours will kill you, but in many cases that is just not true. Lacto-fermentation is extremely safe, even safer than water bath canning, because there is no chance of botulism. The fermentation process allows "good" microorganisms to outcompete those that might make you sick.

 I can think of no better way to preserve an abundance of cabbage for the winter months, and guys, you don't even have to can it! The fermentation process is all you need to do, and that basically amounts to letting it sit out for a few days. You can't go wrong here.

Pink kraut!

Here is what you need to make sauerkraut:
1 cabbage, red or green or half and half!
A quart sized mason jar, or non-metallic crock with a lid
2-4 teaspoons or salt, to taste
A big wooden spoon, or potato masher, or meat hammer, or some other blunt heavy object
Large bowl

For kimchi:
All the equipment listed above
1 napa cabbage
3-4 teaspoons of salt, or more
A bunch of scallions
1 bulb garlic
2 inches ginger
4 or more red chilis
1 daikon radish
4 carrots (optional)

Here is what you do. Take the cabbage, peel off the outer leaves and give it a good wash. I have read in some places that you should use only organic cabbage because conventional cabbage will not ferment properly. This is bunk. Use what you have and ignore the crazies.

Cut the cabbage in half (length ways for napa) and then cut out the core. Lay each half on the flat side and slice the cabbage into fairly thin ribbons - maybe half an inch or so. Precision is not critical. For kimchi I like to cut the cabbage into two inch or so chunks. Chop up the other vegetables and spices as well.

Place the shredded cabbage, and for kimchi, the other vegetables and spices, in the large bowl with the salt and pound the bajeezus out of it. The cabbage will start to release its water as a result of being pounded - the salt aids in this as well.

You should be able to see the juice when you tip the bowl..
Pound until it is really juicy, then pack it in the mason jar, or crock, and add enough salt water to cover. Some folks recommend weighing down the cabbage with a (clean) rock to keep it under the water, but personally I haven't had any trouble just capping it as long as you make sure it is submerged in brine. I like to check it every day, and use a spoon to pack it down after taking a sample. If you are using a jar, screw the lid on loosely to allow gas and brine to escape during fermentation. Keep a dish under the jar to catch any liquid that comes out.

Leave the jars out for a few days to a week, until it stops bubbling. You can potentially leave it out at room temperature, but it will continue to ferment and get more sour if you do this. I have eaten kraut that was kept in a basement for five months - this is a preservation technique, after all - but I recommend refrigerating it once it tastes good to you, at least at first, until you get a better idea of how it will taste as it progresses.

That's all there is to it, folks. Kimchi fried rice is a delicious meal for those days when you are out of fresh vegetables and your blood sugar is too low to allow for a trip to the store ... at least, that's been my experience.

My first kimchi ever. I had three quarts, but this is the lone survivor of The Great Pickled Vegetable Consumption of 2011.
If you want to learn more about making sauerkraut or kimchi, I highly recommend Wild Fermentation by Sandor Ellix Katz. It is pretty much The Holy Book of Fermentation.

I leave you on this final note.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Cider is awesome! Put yeast in juice! Drink!

Warning: This post may have been written under the influence of hard cider. 

Twenty bottles of cider - that's a lot of booze.

I'm not a beer drinker, and while I like wine, I love cider! Wine is perfect for romantic, swanky dinners, but for a casual meal, you can't go wrong with cider. If you've never fermented your own alcohol before, don't despair; cider is as simple as it gets.

What you need:
Fermentation vessel, either a plastic bucket with a lid or a large glass jar (carboy) with a stopper.
Air lock
Juice, added Vitamin C is ok, added preservatives are not. Check the label.
Yeast, either liquid, such as Wyeast Cider Yeast, or dry, such as Nottingham Ale.
Bottles, 16oz or 750 ml
Siphon hose
Campden tablets, bleach water, or vinegar.
Racking cane, optional

The bucket should be food grade, with a lid that has a hole for an air lock. I use a six gallon size. These, and the yeast, are easily obtained from your Local Homebrew Store, or you can order them online. I spent about $50 to get set up on my first cider – that may sound like a lot, but when you consider the cost of a six-pack is easily $10, that I got twenty 750ml bottles out of it, and that I will continue to reuse the bucket and air lock for future brewing, it's pretty cheap!

For my first cider, I stuck to the basics. I used five gallons of locally grown Colorado apple juice, a vial of Wyeast Cider Yeast, a 6 gallon plastic fermentation bucket, and racking cane and hose. I obtained the juice from a local grocery and the bucket, yeast, siphon hose, and racking cane from my Friendly Local Homebrew Store (Hop To It!) in Boulder, Colorado – hence forth known as the FLHBS. Five gallon buckets from Home Depot work, too, just make sure it's food grade.

I has a bucket.
If you want to start small, I recommend buying your juice in one gallon glass jugs. You just add the yeast and pop on the stopper and airlock! Who knew booze could be so easy?



Start with room temperature juice. If you are using liquid yeast, let it come to room temperature, too. When I made my first cider it was January and bloody cold, so I set my juice on the radiator to warm up a bit. Just don't melt your juice jugs. While you are waiting for things to warm up, sanitize your bucket, and airlock. You can use diluted bleach water (one tablespoon per gallon of water), or vinegar, but I use Campden tablets (one tablet per gallon). Put the airlock in the bucket, add your sanitizer, and swish it all around. Make sure to sanitize the lid, too. If you are using Campden tablets, you don't have to rinse anything, just dump the solution out before you pour in your juice. If you are using bleach water, or vinegar, give everything a good rinse before adding anything else. When your juice is no longer cold, pour it all into the bucket, and add the yeast. Snap on the lid, or, if you are using glass jars, the stopper, and add the airlock. I fill my airlock with hard liquor to keep out any airborne microbes that may infiltrate the yeast population - I used applejack, because I had it. Some people use Everclear to ensure maximum booziness, but you can also use water.

Now all you do is wait. I let my first cider ferment for a month, but that's not a hard and fast rule. Some books say to let it wait six months, and others say ten days. The important thing is to wait until it the airlock stops bubbling – that means the yeast have consumed all the sugar and your cider is pretty much done. If the airlock still bubbles once every two minutes or more, give it some more time before you bottle. Bottling too early can lead to bottle bombs - you don't want to mess with that. 

After a month, I bottled my cider, using 750 ml clasp top glass bottles from my FLHBS. You can also recycle old beer bottles or wine bottles, but you have to buy a capper or corker, and new caps or corks. I dig clasp top bottles, because you can reuse them indefinitely without throwing away caps or corks.

Those are Campden tablets, I swear.
If you want sparkling cider, all you have to do is add some sugar when bottling, two teaspoons per gallon. Add the sugar to the bucket and stir, then let it sit to allow the sediment to settle back down to the bottom. Don't add more than this – see above warning about bottle bombs. I also used a racking cane and siphon hose to bottle my cider. You can do without the racking cane, but you have to suck the hose to get it flowing, and use your (clean!) finger to stopper it between bottles. I find the racking cane to be less sticky and more sanitary. Just attach the hose to the cane end of the racking cane, put the end of the hose in a bottle, pump the cane a few times to get the cider flowing, and continue with each bottle. Stop before you get to the very bottom - that's where the yeast goes to die.


I let my cider age in bottles for a month before drinking. Like wine, it gets better with time, and so far every bottle is smoother than the last. Some books I have read recommend waiting at least six months before drinking - if you have the patience, go for it! I started drinking the still cider after a month, and the sparkling after a few months. I recommend chilling sparkling cider before opening, unless you want a dramatic cider-splosion! Be sure to always put away a few bottles for future drinking. After a year or two your cider may have transformed into something amazing.

For a very easy to understand, simple, and interesting introduction to homebrewing, check out Strong Waters, by Scott Mansfeld.

Monday, April 25, 2011

Basic Whole Wheat Bread

If you have never made bread at home before, this is a good first loaf to try. A lot of people are intimidated by bread making that isn't done by machine, but there is no reason to be! It does take a lot of time, up to 7 hours, but most of that time is spent waiting around doing nothing while the bread rises or bakes. Have a free day on the weekend that you are planning on spending on the couch playing video games? Why not have bread rising while you laze around! There is only about an hour of active work involved, and you get two loaves out of it, that are way tastier than any pre-sliced commercial wheat bread you can buy in the grocery store.

I learned to bake bread from Laurel's Kitchen, an old vegetarian hippie cookbook I found at a thrift store a couple years ago. It has a lot of advice that is useful for novice vegetarians, but if you can get a hold of the New Laurel's Kitchen, or the Laurel's Kitchen Bread Book, I prefer those, as they are a little less dated - unless you want to learn how to make nutritional yeast butter. My technique and knowledge of bread mostly come from those books, and if you want to learn more about baking with whole wheat, check them out!

This recipe includes yogurt and honey, but if you would like to skip those, you can sub an additional cup of water for the yogurt, and sugar for the honey, for a vegan bread. We'll just ignore the yeasties, I suppose.

Whole Wheat Yogurt Bread 
1/2 c warm water
2 t yeast
5 1/2 c whole wheat flour (I use stoneground organic, alternatively use a medium or coarsely ground flour)
2 t salt
2/3 c plain yogurt
1/4 c honey
1/4 c olive oil
1 c warm water 

Mix the yeast and the half cup of  warm water together until the yeast is all wet. Laurel's Kitchen says to make sure that every single grain is wet, but guys, be realistic. Be sure to stir your flour before your measure it, to make sure it isn't packed down - too much flour will make your bread rock-like. In a large bowl (the dough will double in size), mix the flour and salt. Then use your spoon to kind of scoop the flour up the sides of the bowl to form a well in the center. Into the well, add the yogurt, honey, olive oil, cup of warm water, and the yeast and water mixture.

Stir from the middle out, until almost all of the flour is incorporated - you will know when to stop, because it gets harder to stir. Now for the lazing! Cover your bowl with a damp towel and let it sit for half an hour. This is to allow the flour to absorb the water and make the dough easier to handle.


After half an hour is up, we knead. Kneading is a sort of art form. Knead too much, your gluten comes undone. Knead too little, and we're back to rock loaves. I started out kneading by hand, but I have an old wrist injury that makes kneading pretty painful, so I now use a food processor to do the work for me.

I slaved over this food processor all day for you.

Kneading by hand is basically the process of pushing, punching, and folding the dough against a counter. This activates the gluten, which makes the bread soft, chewy, and high rising. Your dough may start off a little sticky, but try not to add too much flour during kneading. Putting a little olive oil on your hands will help with this problem. About half way through the kneading process, the dough will stop being sticky, and start getting soft and springy. This is good, but it doesn't mean you are done. I knead by hand for about ten more minutes after the dough hits this point, but it could take you a little more or less time, depending on your strength and, uh ... vigor. When your dough is ready, it will feel very soft, springy, and stretchy. If it's not stretchy that means the gluten isn't developed, so keep kneading until it is.

Only the bottom portion of dough has been kneaded.

The hard part is over. Really! Put the dough back in the bowl, cover with a damp towel, and let it rise. The rising time depends on the temperature of your kitchen. Hotter = a faster rise. Ideal temperatures are between 60 and 90 degrees F. At 60 degrees the dough could take up to four hours for the first rise, at 90, as little as an hour and a half. You can speed it along by putting the dough in the oven with the light on, but! The bread will taste better, and keep better, if you let it take its sweet time! You will know the dough is ready to punch down when you poke it, and the hole you make stays, and does not  start filling back in. If it does start filling back in, you need to wait a bit longer.

Twice poked dough. See how the poke on the right filled in, but the poke on the left stayed?

Punch the dough down and form it back into a ball. Let it rise a second time. This usually takes only about half as long as the first rise. So if your kitchen is around 60 degrees, and it took four hours for the first rise, assume it will take another two hours for the second rise.

After applying the highly scientific and accurate finger poke test, and determining that your dough is again ready to punch down, you are ready to shape the loaves. Now is the time to preheat the oven to 400F. This recipe makes two loaves. I like to make one free form and one rectangular pan loaf ... also I only have one loaf pan. To shape, divide the dough in half,  and flatten half into a circle. For a round loaf, fold the edges of the circle into the middle and then turn it upside down, and use your hands to form it into a ball. For a rectangular pan loaf, flatten the dough into a vaguely rectangular shape, roll it up and pinch the edges together. Make sure the seam where you pinched the dough together is on the bottom when you put the dough in the pan to rise.

Let it rise one final time - this time will only take half an hour to an hour. When the dough has about doubled, or is at the top of your loaf pan, slash the top with whatever pattern you like, just try not to cut too deep - only about 1/4 of an inch. Turn the oven down to 375F and bake for 45 minutes to an hour. How do you know when the bread is done? It should have risen a little more in the oven, have a brown, crispy crust, and sound hollow when you thump on the bottom of the loaf.

Two delicious loaves of bread.
 I usually make one raisin and one plain loaf. To make raisin bread, just knead in the raisins and other goodies before shaping. I like to add raisins, walnuts, cinnamon, and sometimes a little molasses. You can switch this up all kinds of ways with pretty much any kind of dried fruit  and / or nut variation. For the raisin haters I recommend cranberry walnut.

For comparison, here are my first two loaves ever. I can now tell you from my long months of baking expertise, that these were under-kneaded, and underproofed (I didn't let them rise long enough), and thus dense and crumbly.
 Your first loaves of bread will probably not be perfect - mine certainly weren't! But they will almost certainly taste good, and you will only get better from here. Also nothing smells as nice as baking bread, so ditch the febreeze and get baking!

This recipe was adapted from the "Yogurt Bread" recipe from The New Laurel's Kitchen.

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Sourdough Pancakes

So you have this little starter. Or perhaps it's not so little anymore. You feed it, and water it, you sing to it at bedtime. You nurture it, from flour and water, to a living, breathing creature. Think of it as a pet. Or rather, millions of little pets. Anyway. You put all this time and energy into creating something, and then, according to many sourdough recipes, you throw it away. Just chuck half of it daily.

I want you to join me in Just Saying No to throwing away perfectly good food. If nothing else, it costs you money. You wouldn't throw away money, would you? Heck no. What would your mama think?

So what is a person to do with this abundant starter, especially if it isn't ready to make bread with? The answer, my friends, is pancakes. Or muffins. Or any quick bread type application. Just because your starter isn't ready to leaven bread doesn't mean it can't be eaten! Quick breads are leavened with baking powder, or soda, or a combination, and thus don't require yeast to rise, which makes them a perfect home for your immature starter. Even better, this pancake recipe calls for two whole cups of starter - more than used for bread!

Enough jibber jabber. On to - PANCAKES!

Sourdough Pancakes

2 cups starter
1/2 cup whole wheat flour
1 egg
4 T melted butter, cooled
2 T sugar
1/2 t salt
1/2 t baking soda
1 T warm water

Combine the dry ingredients, then add the wet ingredients, except baking soda and warm water, and mix. Dissolve soda in warm water, and add last, folding in gently until combined, immediately before cooking. Unlike regular pancakes, bubbles on the edge do not indicate done-ness. Cook until all the bubbles pop, and the pancake is visibly cooked mostly through on the first side, then flip, and cook a couple more minutes until brown on both sides. Feeds two hungry people, usually on Saturday mornings, with fried eggs, maple syrup, and coffee.

Can you substitute stuff? Heck yes! If you are vegan, you could simply sub coconut oil or olive oil for butter, and a tablespoon of ground flax and three tablespoons of water for the egg. Easy as pancakes! In fact, I have accidentally made these with no egg before, and my partner said he preferred them that way. If you have objections to sugar, you could use honey or maple syrup (maybe even agave?) in place of it. I hear you can make starter with non-wheat flour, too, for gluten avoiding types, but I don't know enough about that to recommend it. If it intrigues you, I recommend further research.

This recipe was adapted from Heavenly Homemakers myriad sourdough pancake recipes. They have an amazing whole wheat sourdough recipe collection, so if you are experiencing an abundance of starter, check them out! If you have an aversion to religiousity mixed in with good sense recipes, however, consider yourself forewarned.

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

How To - Sourdough Starter

Welcome to the DIY Revolution! Why DIY? Some folks do it to save money, to cut back on fossil fuel use, to avoid processed food, to get back to basics, to learn ancestral skills, and to avoid the impending zombie  apocalypse. Whatever your reasons are, they are good reasons. Therefore, I am going to skip over all that and focus on the practical.

I love bread. When I began baking at home, I was satisfied with replacing my previous whole wheat bread with homemade, but I missed sourdough. I assumed that sourdough was out of my league. I was just a lowly novice. And, didn't you need some 100 year old starter? Where the hell was I supposed to find that? Luckily for me, I came across some information on the interwebs about making your own starter. Basically it came down to, mix flour and water. Wait. Add more. Wait.

Everything I ever knew about sourdough was wrong. My world was changed. Forever. Sourdough needn't be descended from hardy wild yeast strains first captured by crusty miners. You can make it, and guys, it is easy! You are about to be inducted into the world of sourdough. Hold on to your hats.

This, and water, is all you need to make starter.

Day 1 - Get yourself a mason jar. The quart size, guys, not a pint. Into this holy vessel, put ye one third of a cup of flour of the refined variety. Also add ye one third of a cup of water - not overly chlorinated, lest ye piss off the yeasties - so, filtered, preferably. Stir this concoction with a spoon hand-carved of the wood of the olive tree. Or any old non-metallic spoon. Place the lid upon the vessel. Let sit for 24 hours.

I love you, Mason jars.

Day 2 - Add a third of a cup of water, and a third of a cup of flour while chanting or saying a prayer (optional) and stirring (mandatory).

Days 3-6 - Continue in this fashion for four more days. If your jar runneth over, try making some sourdough pancakes.

The first signs of life - bubbles!

Day 7 - Examine your sourdough. Take a big whiff. Does it smell alcoholic and sour? Is there a layer of scary looking bubbly liquid on top? If so, congratulations! You have made sourdough! In my experience, you can tell when a starter is viable (harboring the yeast populations needed to leaven bread) by smell, as it will go from smelling bloody awful to smelling like sourdough within a few days. However, I am a smell-oriented person. If you are not, wait an extra week to be sure. Keep feeding your starter every day. If it is bubbling, and there is a layer of liquid (known as the "hooch" - yes, it is really hooch, but I don't recommend drinking it - don't ask how I know) on top, you are on the right track.

If, after two weeks, you have seen no signs of life in your starter, and it looks and smells just like water and flour, something has gone wrong. Perhaps there were not enough wild yeasts in your flour, or your water was too chlorinated. Try again using organic flour and boiled water. Have patience.

Day Post-Readyness - After your starter smells like sourdough, or two weeks, you can keep it in the fridge for up to a week without feeding it. Those little yeasty beasties will just hibernate until you are ready to use them. Take the starter out of the fridge the day before you want to bake with it, and when it reaches room temperature, feed it. After you use it, feed it again before you put it back  in the fridge.

Sourdough - magical, mystical, and obtainable. Also delicious. There you have it, folks.

Next up! Sourdough pancakes, aka, why you shouldn't toss your starter. (Hint - because it is delicious).